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|Title: ||A unified organization of the Stichotrichine oral apparatus, including a description of the Buccal Seal (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea).|
|Authors: ||Foissner, W.|
AL-Rasheid, K. A. S.
|Keywords: ||buccal cavity|
lateral membranellar cilia
membranellar bolsters, SEM.
|Issue Date: ||2006 |
|Publisher: ||Acta Protozoologica. POLAND.|
|Citation: ||45: 1-16.|
|Abstract: ||We investigated the oral apparatus of several stichotrichine spirotrichs, such as Stylonychia, Saudithrix, and Holosticha. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the oral opening into the buccal cavity covered by a membranous sheet, the “buccal seal”, which is very fragile and thus probably restored after each feeding process. Depending on the depth of the buccal cavity, there is an upper or an upper and a lower seal, for example, in Cyrtohymena and Saudithrix, where the buccal cavity extends near to the dorsal side of the cell. Scanning electron microscopy further reveals special cilia at the right end of the ventral membranelles. These “lateral membranellar cilia” originate mainly from the short fourth row at the anterior side of each membranelle. The lateral membranellar cilia, which are usually covered by the (upper) buccal seal, may be numerous and long (Cyrtohymena) or sparse and short (Holosticha). Live observations reveal that they are involved in feeding, while the long paroral and endoral cilia remain almost motionless. Based on these and other new observations, especially on the buccal lip and the membranellar bolsters, we propose an improved model for the organization of the stichotrichine oral apparatus. The distribution of buccal seal-like structures throughout the ciliate phylum, the nature and possible functions of the buccal seal and the lateral membranellar cilia, and the alpha-taxonomic significance of the new features are discussed.|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Science|
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