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|Title: ||Pharmacognostical and Biological Study of Caralluma sinaica Growing in Saudi Arabia|
|Authors: ||Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohammed|
El-Shafae, Azza M
|Keywords: ||Natural Products Analysis|
|Issue Date: ||18-Jun-2011 |
|Abstract: ||Caralluma sinaica (Decne.) is a succulent edible plant, found in the western (Taif) and south western (Asir) region of Saudi Arabia. The plant is sold in the local market and is reputed to have aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities. The diverse applications of Caralluma plants in folk medicine have prompted the phytochemical and biological investigations of their constituents.
This thesis involved pharmacognostical study of C. sinaica, family Asclepiadaceae, growing in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive review of past pertinent studies and literature review indicated no previous work concerning the chemical constituents and botanical characters of the species under investigation.
The goals of the thesis were:
1- Preliminary phytochemical and mass spectrometric screening for the total alcoholic extract and different fractions of the investigated plant.
2- Isolation and characterization of the main constituents of the plant.
3- Evaluation of the biological activity of the different extracts, fractions, and some selected pure compounds in certain in vitro assays for cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities.
4- Study of the macro and micro morphological characters of the plant both in entire and powdered forms to facilitate the identification of the plant.
The thesis is composed of an introduction (45 pages) and five other parts. Different results are presented in 26 tables and illustrated by 99 figures. At the end of the thesis a list of 149 references used in the different parts is given.
I. Introduction; included a brief discussion in the taxonomy of Asclepiadaceae, folk uses of different Caralluma species. The phytochemistry of genus Caralluma was discussed with emphasis on pregnane glycosides constituents and their reported biological activities in literature.
II. Experimental; listed all materials, equipment and techniques used in spectroscopic, phyto-chemical, biological and botanical studies.
III. Phytochemical Study of the Aerial Parts of C. sinaica; preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterol glycosides and flavonoids. This section included detailed description for extraction and solvent partitioning of C. sinaica. and different chromatographic techniques used to isolate pure metabolites. In addition, it included chromatograms of UPLC-TOF-MS analysis for total alcoholic extract and the different fractions obtained.
IV. Results and Discussion of Isolated Compounds; this section illustrated the methodology used for characterization of all isolated compounds. A total of 16 compounds were isolated and identified from the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol
extracts based on physical, chemical and spectroscopic techniques, including IR, UV, MS and 1D and 2D NMR (Table A, pages xiv-xvi).
The current literature was scrutinized for the novelty of the isolated compounds and it revealed the following:
i. The pregnane glycosides: 5.7, 12.2, 12.6a1, 12.6a2, 16.9 and 16.13 are new compounds.
ii. The pregnane glycosides: 3.1, 8.6, 12.3, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7 and B.7 were previously isolated from different Caralluma species.
iii. The flavone aglycone (luteolin) and the flavonol glycoside (rutin) are reported for the first time from genus Caralluma.
iv. The flavone glycoside (luteolin 4`-O-£]-D-neohesperidoside) was previously isolated from several species of Caralluma.
V. Pharmacological Study; included the cytotoxicity and cancer chemoprotective potential in vitro bioassays performed for total alcoholic extract of the plant, different fractions and some of the isolated compounds. Compounds 3.1 and 8.6 demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity and QR induction activity with CD values of 5.8 and 6.5 ƒÝg/ml, respectively. In addition, In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities were determined for the different extracts by In vitro assays and indicated that the chloroformic extract is active against L. infantum and P. falciparum (K1) with IC50 9.41 and 8.23 £gg/ml, respectively.
VI. Botanical study; represented the macroscopical and microscopical characters of different organs of the plant (old stem, young stem, root and modified leaf) as well as the microscopical features of the powdered plant organs.|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Pharmacy|
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