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|Title: ||Impact of breast feeding on Females' body image|
|Authors: ||Al-Mutairi, MaryamAbdulrahman|
|Keywords: ||Community Health Nursing|
|Issue Date: ||27-Jun-2009 |
|Abstract: ||Breastfeeding is a natural process but it does not always
come without a learning curve for many mothers. It is rare that
mothers do not have any difficulties breastfeeding. The key is to
stick with it, get support and guidance from a lactation
consultant and be careful to not introduce bottles or formula
unless you have tried everything else first.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all
infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to 6 months of age,
followed by the gradual introduction of other forms of nutrition
and continued breastfeeding into the second year and beyond.
Body image can basically be defined as the mind's picture
of the personal body and accompanying thoughts, feelings, and
In relation to breastfeeding, body image disturbance traits
may influence a woman's initial decision to breastfeed, as well
as possibly promote discomfort within the breastfeeding
relationship, causing early cessation.
Aim of the study:-
The aim of this study was to assess impact of breast feeding
concept on mothers' body image and initiation and continuity of
breast feeding in Riyadh city.
The study was conducted at (antenatal clinic & well baby
clinic) Primary Health Care Centers at East & West Riyadh city.
A systematic random sample used to choose these centers. The
five regions of Riyadh city were subjected to equal chance in
order to select two regions out of five (East & west) regions
were randomly elicited. Form the two regions also centers were
randomly selected from each two regions out of regions. Hence
the four centers were selected for data collection were PHC
centers (Al-Soli & East Nasseim ) East region, PHC centers
(Erijah C & Badiah ) West region.
A total population of this study 200 woman, including 100
pregnant women who at the third trimester of their pregnancy
and 100 women who are breast fed their infants at the first 3
months of their life. A convenient sample technique was used
for selecting participants. At each four clinics 25 pregnant
women from ante natal clinics & 25 lactating woman were
selected with the following Inclusive criteria.
Inclusive criteria for selection of the population subjects was as
1- Mothers age from 18-30 years.
2- Mothers either first pregnancy or with maximum 3
3- Mothers who has normal physical condition without
4- Non-Saudi mothers were excluded from the sample.
5- Mothers who are willing to participate in this study.
A pilot study was conducted on 10 women to test the validity
and reliability of the tools and to estimate the time required for
filling the sheets and to establish the research modification
procedures. Any required modification was done.
Data was collected from the period of (Rajab , 1429 / July,
2008) to Duo-Quad a, 1429 / December 2008) for duration of
A structured questionnaire composed of two parts was utilized
to collect the required data;
I - Structured interviewing questionnaire was constructed by the
researcher after consulting the experts in maternity &
pioneers health care field, the questionnaire consists of two
ÞFirst part of the questionnaire included:
A. Socio-demographic data such as (age, educational level,
occupation status, income/ month, etc…).
B. Obstetrical History such as ( Number Previous
pregnancies &months, Number of live children & Type of
delivery, etc. )
Þ Second part of the interview was aimed at assessing the
Factor that encouraging and hindering initiation of breast
feeding ,twenty-nine questions was developed by the
researcher review of literature, it was formed as Likert
scale answers ranging from strongly accept (4 grades) to
strongly not accept (1 grade)
II - The Body Image Disturbance Scale ( Al- Dousky, 2004). It
is a 34 likert-scale (5 answers) ranging from always (4
grades) to never (0 grade) with maximum total score 136
and minimum score 34. The highest scores indicates that
woman is satisfied with her body image while lowest
scores indicates that woman is not satisfied with her body
image. Total scores of Body Image Disturbance Scale was
divided as follows:
1- > 50 scores is totally not satisfied with body image.
2- 50 >100 scores moderately satisfied with her body image.
3- Above 100 scores is totally satisfied with her body image.
The results of the study revealed that:-
1. Near half and above two thirds the pregnant and lactating
mothers aged (25 > 30 years ) (51% & 67%) respectively.
Concerning educational level of the studied samples, that
more than half of the pregnant mothers (59%) and (48%)
of the lactating mothers had secondary school education.
2. Most of the pregnant and lactating mothers are working
(81% & 73%), among who had rented house were (55% &
57%) and of the population who had a present of made
(75% & 67%) respectively. And above two-third of the
pregnant and lactating mothers (65% & 63%) belonged to
low and moderate socio-economic level.
3. Wither the of pregnant and lactating mothers (21% &
38%) initiate breast feeding at the second day after
delivery respectively, as regards the previous breast
feeding duration takes a period of three months after
delivery (34% & 73%) respectively for present pregnant
4. There is a statistically significant relationship between
factors that encourage /hinder initiating & continuity of
breast feeding among both studied sample (p = < 0.001).
In relation to total scores of body image between pregnant
and lactating mothers, a statistically significant relation
was found (p = 0.01).
5. The lactating mothers are more active in initiating breast
feeding than the pregnant mothers during, days of the
newborn’s age (37% & 32% ) (23% & 16%) respectively,
but (there was no significant difference between the two
groups regarding the time of initiation of breast feeding.
6. The percent (70% & 40%) wither the lactating and
pregnant mothers were continues breast feeding their
infants for the first three months of their infants’ age
respectively ,while the minority (2% & 37%) were not
lactating their infants and still pregnant for the first time.
There is a significant relationship in relation to continuity
of breast feeding among lactating mothers (p = 0.001).
7. A considerable percent of the pregnant and lactating
mothers (74% & 77% ) considered that colostrums in the
first three days after delivery is important for the newborn
while (37% & 35%) of both groups accept and strongly
accept that bottle feeding is better than breast feeding
because it helps infant to grow healthy respectively.
8. The two-third of the pregnant (61%) and near half (54%)
lactating mothers & did not take the decision to breast
feed their infant during their pregnancy respectively.
9. The (41% ) of the pregnant and (50%) of the lactating
mothers, regarding who is responsible to decide to breast
feed the new coming body; both groups strongly not
accept that they are only the one who is responsible to take
the decision of breast feeding. In relation to feeling of
happiness during breast feeding among pregnant and
lactating mothers (36%& 83%) strongly accept and
strongly not accept respectively.
10. Near two third of the pregnant (59%) and (43%) lactating
mothers were strongly not accept the fact that breast
feeding will protects the mothers from having breast
cancer or protect their body from having gastroenteritis
11. (44%) of the pregnant mothers accept the idea that their
work interfering with their readiness to breast feed their
babies, while (30%) of lactating mothers not accept the
same proposed idea. .
12. Among the pregnant (45%) and with lactating mothers
(48%) accept that breast feeding sessions are given only
two times per day and continue with artificial feeding In
relation to the importance of breast feeding, (37%) of the
pregnant mothers accept that breast feeding is important
only for the first three months of the kids age and then
they can stop it , while (34%) of lactating mothers are not
accepting this idea.
13. Occupation of lactating mothers is significant to the
factors hindering breast feeding (p= 0.000) and is not
significant in relation to factors hindering breast feeding
and body image among pregnant mothers (Mean = 74.4
& SD = 7.04) (Mean = 95.05 & SD = 15.4) respectively.
14. The presence of made in the house pregnant and lactating
mothers is not significant to their factors hindering breast
feeding and their body image (Mean = 74.7 & SD = 6.6)
(Mean = 97.5 & SD = 13.4) (pregnant mothers ) and
(Mean = 80.3 & SD = 10.8 ) (Mean = 94.2 & SD = 11.2)
(lactating mothers )respectively.
The results of this study folded that regardless of the personal
hindering or encouraging initiation factors characteristics a
positive body image was proved to be relatively high among
lactating mothers regardless initiating or hindering factors or
knowledge that positively encourage breast feeding.
1. Integrating self-efficacy
Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy is a significant
predictor of breastfeeding duration and level. Integrating
self-efficacy enhancing strategies may improve the quality
of healthcare that healthcare professionals deliver & may
increase a new mother's confidence in her ability to
breastfeed, & to persevere if she dose encounter
2. Address mothers' self confidence
The individual mother is responsible for the success of
breastfeeding and the discourses are hiding that general
perceptions of breastfeeding undermines the mothers'
confidence in breastfeeding should be addressed.
3. Dissemination of information and education
The study suggests a need for dissemination of
information and education regarding optimal breastfeeding
practices and for protecting and promoting healthy
4. Involvement of pregnant and lactating mothers, in
Involvement of pregnant and lactating mothers, in various
activities is desirable as they all have an important role in
initiation of breast-feeding and other healthy feeding
practices at the community level.
5. Promoting institutional deliveries
They should be made aware of advantages and
psychological implications of optimal breast-feeding
practices. Efforts should also be made for promoting
institutional deliveries for providing them better
opportunities of health education for early initiation of
6. Conduct research
Conduct research that identifies the social, cultural,
economic, and psychological factors that influence infant
7. Educational programs
While the educational programs launched to convey the
benefits of breastfeeding often focus on the health of the
baby, the focus needs to shift to the decision-making
process that mothers go through in making infant feeding
choices, including the effect of body image on
breastfeeding initiation and duration.
8. Promoting & improvement mothers need information
Before any increases in breastfeeding rates can occur, true
underlying causes of breastfeeding practices, as well as
barriers to breastfeeding initiation, must be identified and
addressed to best meet the needs of mothers and to best
provide for the health of future generations.
9. Family and peer support
A universal service for initiation of breast feeding using
peer support and family assistance provided within
antenatal clinics is required.
A policy for attending breastfeeding sessions during
antenatal period is a must for all pregnant mothers
especially during the third pregnancy trimester and
especially for those living in relatively deprived areas and
initiation and implementation of home visits for
postpartum women to assess and encourage women to
continue breast feeding is necessary.
11.Paid maternity vacation
Community health team should encourages and advocates
women to have postpartum maternity leave with full salary
for the first 6 months of the child's age for exclusive
lactation and flexibility in working conditions for
12. The role of healthcare providers
The healthcare providers must focuses on the benefits of
breastfed versus formula-fed infants across time and
Nurses & Pediatricians have significant role in initiation
and support mothers to start breastfeeding early
especially if the hospital rules is to keep woman who
delivered normally for at least 12 hours post delivery.|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Nursing|
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