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|Title: ||Identification of Factors Associated with Postpartum Depression among Saudi Females in Riyadh City|
|Authors: ||Al-Shami, Nesreen|
El Atty Moawed, Salma Abd
|Keywords: ||Maternity and Child Care Nursing|
|Issue Date: ||2-Jun-2010 |
|Abstract: ||Postpartum depression is a serious medical condition experienced by women soon after giving birth. Up to 75% of new mothers experience the condition's mildest form, "baby blues" which may result from the rapid hormonal shifts that occur during postpartum period. These postpartum blues typically begin a few days after the baby's birth and generally resolve within two weeks. Tearfulness and depression mood are common features and are usually self-limiting. Women with "baby blues" often report feeling overwhelmed, anxious, irritable and sensitive.
A more serious form of the disorder is referred to as postpartum depression. Post partum depression is a significantly more severe depressed mood than "baby blues" and often last much longer. It affects approximately 10% of post partum mothers and is characterized by sadness, frequent crying, insomnia, appetite change, difficulty concentration or making decisions, feeling of inadequacy, and lack of interest in normal activities. Postpartum depression most often occurs around the fourth week after giving
birth, just prior to resumption of menses, and after weaning; however, it may occur any time during the first postpartum year. Risk factors for postpartum depression include first birth, ambivalence about the pregnancy, lack of social support, economical problems, history of abortion, died infant, gender of infant, medical or surgical history, number of pregnancies, type of delivery, life stressor event, lack of partner, and a history of depression or another depression illness, and more.
The current study aims to:
1- Analyze the risk factors contributing of PPD mothers in Saudi Arabia.
2- Correlate between risk factors and postpartum depression. So it is of great value to conduct postpartum depression study , the most sensitive and unsearched well issue in our cutler and as health care providers in order to assess and investigate most important factors that affect post partum mothers in attempting their role in infant, family and self care. Result for instrument used were found as: The result obtained from sample socio-economical status factors and previous obstetrical history indicated strong relationship between postpartum depression and mothers in middle age group (37%), unemployed (54%), low education level and non professional (65%). History of disease were found to be non with (96%), family history of depression were non in most of the sample with (67%). History of previous postpartum depression were found in (64%) of sample and non of them were effected by any other psychological disease. Multi-Para (2-6 pregnancies) were found to be more effected by post partum depression (60.5%), as well as number of abortion (73%).
Data related to last pregnancy indicated that 85% of them did not encounter any health problems during pregnancy and the remaining 14.5 were affected by anemia. Most of the mothers came across problems during last delivery (52%) with (75%) of the problem associated with difficulty of labor. Newborn were 55% not complaining of problems during last delivery. With normal birth weight 2200mg-2100mg (69.5%). Majority of mothers did not diagnosed by antenatal depression during last pregnancy (53.5%) and the rest who diagnosed by antenatal depression (46.5%) were most diagnosed at third trimester (23%). Type of last delivery indicated that cesarean section were more related to postpartum depression with 52.5% more than normal vaginal delivery, complications after delivery were found in 62.5% of mothers and the most common reason were breast inflammation and feeding problem . Father socioeconomic status studied in different country to show the relationship between father occupational, educational and family monthly income then by statistical method define the social level of family, the questioner help this study in identifying father relationship as essential factor in postpartum depression. Result indicted that 56.5% of father educational level were intermediate and primary, 78.0% were semi-profession or skilled worker and 51.5% of family monthly income were between 5000 to 7999. Final family social class shows that 82.0% of families were middle social class. Life stressor scale shows that all study sample 200(100%) have low stress event; this may indicate a critical issue that post partum depression can develop even in low life stress and it also can indicate that physiological changes and personality type of mothers can more affect in developing of postpartum depression than outside or environmental
and social factors. The scale divided to 10 items each items as discussed contain several points, 105 points in total. Item related to giving birth e.g. mode of delivery, infant status, becoming pregnant, husband desire to get pregnant, fertility issue, got the highest mean score (18.88) it indicate that women are more influenced by issues related to stress during pregnancy and delivery, followed by the scale attitude related to marriage e.g. enforced to get marred, relation with husband, separation from husband, with average mean (17.91), and then the scale of attitudes related to money e.g. Demand loan, not able to pay loan, with average mean (17.11). Signs and symptoms of depression mode were searched to identify most common indication for the disease. Mothers who thought that they ' don¡¦t feel happy' got highest mean score (4.44). Mean of (4.01) for both feeling of 'interrupted sleep either few or much sleeping' and mothers feel that' husband did not honored or respect them'. Mothers who feel anxious and can not relax got mean score of (3.94). But no suicide or die thought were found in this sample. Other signs of postpartum depression were found with less mean e.g. perform all things slowly, future may be desperate, feeling guilt and deserve penalty, cant take decision, may not concern with important things, feel tired, feeling of emptiness, others like "am sure my husband mother did not love me ", "I feel my husband is punishing me because I get pregnant and deliver without his desire", "I have no concern with my child", were added to address our cultural concerns. Based on the study findings the following recommendations are suggested in providing care and preventing from postpartum depression in kingdom of Saudi Arabia:
For Research: More research is n needed to: „h Assess life style / stress / environmental factors around family that can lead to postpartum depression. „h family awareness and practice which may predisposed or influenced women depression „h Health education program by maternity nurse or/and psychologist about physical and psychological changes during pregnancy are needed for women pre-conception , during pregnancy and during postnatal period . „h Provide books, websites, and phone discussion if needed . „h Continuing in-service training program for all nurses working in maternity departments and primary health care centers to enhance their awareness about different type of stressor in life which has effect on reproductive health and how family and mother can manage Community and Family: „h Group of home health care nurses, psychologist and social workers should visit mother at risk to assess , prevent and follow up her situation, and helping affected mother family / father to cope with disease. Observe for father and family adjustment and provide social and psychological support.
It is important to replicate the study in other regions with different sample and in different culture group within the kingdom in order to generalize the result to other groups|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Nursing|
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