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|Title: ||Impact of blended learning on EFL college readers|
|Authors: ||Al-Jarf, Reima|
|Issue Date: |
|Citation: ||IADIS International Conference e-Learning Lisbon, Portugal|
|Abstract: ||Reading is an important skill in the first and second language. Failing to learn to read and write in the early years results in more special education placement, retention, and poor self‐esteem for the
learner than any other cause (Casey, 2001).
Computer technology proved to have many benefits for children with learning difficulties, including motivational aspects and development of fine motor
skills (Casey, 2001).
A review of the L1 and L2 reading research on the effect of different types of technology on student achievement has shown two contradictory findings.
The first line of research found that use of
technology had no significant effect on students’
reading achievement. Computer assisted instruction was found to have no effect on the reading achievement of 3rd and 6th grade students in a low socio‐economic status community (Hamilton, 1995).
At the high school level, no significant differences were found between students who used the FCAT Explorer and those who did not. In a third study,
Humble (2000) found that when 2nd grade students used the Living Books software, in which the computer reads aloud to the students, their Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) scores were almost equal to
the IRI scores of 2nd grade students reading the same stories aloud to an adult from a hardcopy book.
A second group of studies found that computerbased instruction, use of hypermedia and computer
software were successful in enhancing elementary, high school and college students’ reading achievement. For example, Chambless & Chambless (1994) found an educationally significant effect sizes
on comparisons of reading scores and measures of writing in favor of the computer‐based instruction group for at‐risk students. These findings suggest that
computer‐based instruction is a powerful
instructional tool for K‐2 teachers. Similarly, Arroyo (1992) found a statistically significant increase in
reading achievement of 7th grade students who used an intensive computer‐assisted instruction program.
Use of hypermedia technology in kindergarten, 2nd and 5th grade classrooms resulted in an increase in
students' comprehension, study skills, decoding, and vocabulary (Caldrone and Others, 1995). The reading
scores of a rural southern junior high school significantly improved as a result of using computers
for two years (Potter & Small, 1998). When 20 “Writing to Read” computer‐based program,
developed by IBM, were evaluated, results revealed
increased kindergarten and first grade students’ gain
scores on word recognition and vocabulary; improved
writing samples; increased ability to remain on task;
greater self‐confidence; fewer retentions; and
enthusiastic support from teachers and parents.
Results after the first full year of operation were
similar to results achieved state‐wide (Shaver & Wise,
1990). Lange, McCarty, Norman & Upchurch, (1999)
found an increase in the reading scores of middle
school students who lacked comprehension and
vocabulary skills and could not read for understanding
at grade level in the different content areas after
utilizing a variety of software applications that
incorporated reading strategies across the curriculum.
By integrating technology with reading strategies,
students demonstrated a transfer of knowledge in all
the content areas. Likewise, Wepner and Others
(1990) found the Sack‐Yourman Developmental Speed
Reading Course software to be effective in allowing
college students to quickly move from "chore"
operations and didactic sections to "real" reading.
Finally, a study by Englert, Zhao, Collings & Romig
(2005) indicated that TELE‐Web, an Internet‐based
software, was effective in improving sight‐word
recognition of at risk students and that these
improvements transferred to a standardized measure
of reading achievement.|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Teaching|
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